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Rectus CAD: The Best Choice for Industrial Low Pressure Fluid Handling Systems

Bland-Altman plot for the difference between CT scan and Ultrasound for the rectus femoris diameter. CT: CT-Scan measurement, US: Ultrasound measurement of Rectus femoris. Full 'bold' line: average difference between CT and US. Broken line: limits of agreement.

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We found a high ICC for both test-retest of the measurement of the RF with US (0.97) as for the comparison of RF measurements with US and CT (0.92) in these older cardiac patients. This is in line with the study of Seymour et al. [9] who reported in COPD patients an ICC of 0.97 for test-retest reliability of US measurement of rectus femoris CSA and of 0.88 for validity of the US measurement of rectus femoris CSA compared with CT. Also Bemben et al. [11] and Kanehisa et al. [12] reported an ICC of 0.72 and 0.99 respectively for test-retest reliability of the CSA measurements using B-mode US technique in various age groups. Bemben et al. tested US and MRI reliability for muscle CSA of the RF at 15 cm above the patella and found no significant differences between both techniques in young subjects (age: 26 years). Similar results were found for the reliability of the US measurement of the vastus lateralis muscle (ICC between 0.997 and 0.999) and for the validity compared with MRI scans (ICC between 0.998 and 0.999) [13].

The observed diameter of RF in our sample of cardiac patients is comparable to earlier findings. That is, Delaney et al. [14] showed a RF depth of 2.3 cm in resting position in healthy young males (mean age 24.6 years). Arts et al. [15] found a quadriceps diameter (thickness of rectus femoris + vastus intermedius) in males of 4.16 1.02 cm (age range 17-90 years) whereas Nogueira et al. [16] found a RF diameter of 1.86 cm in 20 older men (age 69-76 years).

Musculus rectus capitis posterior minor is a member of the suboccipital group of muscles along with rectus capitis posterior major, obliquus capitis superior, and obliquus capitis inferior.[1]

A short rectus femoris may contribute to a higher positioned patella in relation to the contralateral side. A markedly shortened rectus femoris is suggested by knee flexion of less than 80or by marked prominence of superior patellar groove[4]

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Rectus femoris can be palpated as it is the most superior of the quadriceps muscles. Start palpation at AIIS, rectus femoris can be felt until its insertion into the quadriceps tendon. Asking the patient to isometrically contract quadriceps will help to identify the muscle belly.

The academic name is Dorcus rectus and it is commonly called as tiny stag beetle.It's one of the stag beetles seen most usually in Japan. I easily found it in my childhood and I might have been rather disappointed. Thus, I'm not sure who wants this model.

Ultrasonography (US) is a feasible and accessible method for the measurement of skeletal muscle mass. This technique presents acceptable intra-rater reliability; however, there are a few reports on its inter-rater reliability. Additionally, relative reliability should equally be inspected to determine the presence of systematic errors. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the intra- and inter-rater reliabilities and absolute reliability of rectus femoris muscle thickness as measured using US.

In the measurements performed using US, a transducer probe (UF-850XTD: Fukuda Denshi Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) was used, as illustrated in Fig. 1b. Participants lay in the supine position with the knee extended and maintained this posture throughout the US measurement (Fig. 1). Rectus femoris muscle thickness was measured from the right side of the thigh. The ultrasound probe was placed on the anterior surface of the thigh, at the midpoint of the length between the anterior superior iliac spine and the upper border of the patella, referring to the measurement position of Pardo et al. [14]. The measurement sites were determined using a measuring tape and marked with a permanent marker. A circumferential mark was made perpendicularly at the midpoint of the long axis. The probe was placed at the top of this circumferential line (Fig. 2) and moved along the line until a suitable image was obtained, in which a parallel position of the three borderlines of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, and femur was achieved (Fig. 3). On the screen of the US device, muscle thickness was calculated by setting the cursor to two points from the border lines of the rectus femoris to the borderlines of vastus intermedius. The probe was maintained in this perpendicular position on the skin surface, and minimal contact pressure was applied during the measurements to obtain good-quality images.

Ultrasound of rectus femoris muscle. Ultrasound images of the muscular layers were obtained, and the muscle thickness of the rectus femoris was measured by drawing a perpendicular line from the border lines of the rectus femoris to the border lines of the vastus intermedius. On the screen of the US (ultrasonography) device, muscle thickness was calculated by setting the cursor to two points from the border lines of the rectus femoris to the border lines of vastus intermedius. Top arrow: rectus femoris muscle; middle arrow: vastus intermedius muscle; bottom arrow: femur

In this study, we evaluated the intra- and inter-rater and absolute reliabilities of rectus femoris muscle measurement using US. Our findings support US as a useful tool for measuring rectus femoris muscle thickness in healthy young individuals. The primary use of analyses of healthy populations is to allow comparisons with pathological populations, and it follows, therefore, that measurement reliability in healthy populations is of importance. Few studies have compared MDC for intra- and inter-rater reliabilities; however, our study results indicated that rectus femoris muscle thickness should be measured by the same rater.

In conclusion, the intra-rater reliability and inter-rater reliability of the measurement of rectus femoris muscle thickness using US were mostly sufficient in healthy young men. Moreover, we determined the measurement error for rectus femoris thickness. Measuring the MDC is useful when verifying the degree of muscle atrophy and any therapeutic effects via the strengthening of muscles. Therefore, the measurement of rectus femoris muscle thickness using US could be considered applicable in clinical research.

A 69-year-old woman presented with sudden onset of diplopia. In neurologic examination left medial rectus palsy without abduction nystagmus was detected. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed acute ischemic lesion in mesencephalon on diffusion-weighted images. Sponteneous resolution was observed after 1 month. Medial rectus palsy is a rare presention of acute ischemic stroke and early neuroimaging is important to establish such lesions.

Introduction. Spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma (SRSH) is characterized by bleeding within the rectus abdominis muscle sheath, one of the rare causes of acute abdominal pain. Early diagnosis is imperative in SRSH to prevent complications and the treatment is usually conservative. We intended to present in this study our experience with SRSH patients with respect to diagnostic evaluation and management of their disease. Materials and Methods. In this retrospective study, 14 patients who had received treatment for SRSH in our clinic between January 2012 and December 2017 were assessed in terms of demographic and clinical characteristics, comorbidities, laboratory parameters, diagnostic approach methods, treatment practices, length of hospital stay, and patient outcomes. Results. The patients consisted of 10 (71.4%) females and 4 males (28.6%). The age of the patients ranged between 47 and 93 with a mean age of 66.5 12.1. Anticoagulant treatments were being administered to 5 (35.7%) patients, antiplatelet treatments to 4 (28.5%) patients, and both anticoagulant and antiplatelet treatments to 4 (28.5%) patients. The most common triggering factor was severe cough and the most common initial symptom acute abdominal pain (71.4%). In physical examinations, the entire patients had generalized abdominal tenderness, 10 (71.4%) voluntary guarding and 7 (50%) a right lower quadrant mass. The diagnosis was confirmed by abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography. Based on the computed tomography findings, the disease was classified as Type 2 found in 9 (64.3%) patients, Type 1 in 3 (21.4%) patients, and Type 3 in 2 (14.2%) patients. All the patients were treated conservatively. They were hospitalized for 1 to 23 days. There was no mortality. All the patients were followed up between 3 months and 2 years and no recurrence was recorded. Conclusion. Considering the presence of SRSH particularly in older female patients who use anticoagulant drugs and have newly developed an abdominal pain and a palpable mass after coughing spells is the key to make an early and correct diagnosis and to prevent possible morbidity and mortality with an appropriate treatment method.

Spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma (SRSH) is a benign pathology developing after accumulation of blood in the rectus sheath due to a rupture of epigastric vessels or tear of the rectus muscle [1]. Considered as a complication of patients who receive anticoagulants, unfractioned and low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) and/or antiplatelet therapies and as a relatively rare cause of acute abdominal pain, this clinical condition can usually be self-limiting when conservative treatment methods are used [2, 3]. However, SRSH can sometimes progress fast and reach life-threatening magnitudes and may even result in hemorrhagic shock and death due to massive bleeding [4, 5]. Its major risk factors include female gender, advanced age, hypertension, atherosclerosis, hematologic diseases, collagen vascular disorders, degenerative muscle diseases, intra-abdominal injections, paracentesis, peritoneal catheter insertion, pregnancy, obesity, blunt trauma, abdominal surgery, excess-uncontrolled exercising, and increased abdominal pressure from cough or sneeze [6].


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